Review of Greenhouse Gas emissions estimates for Westconnex Stage 2 New M5 EIS

Dr Owen Price, South Sydney Greens and Senior Research Fellow, University of Wollongong.

The EIS for stage 2 of the Westconnex motorway attempts to calculate future emissions from the construction and operation of the road and from the vehicles that will use it. The construction phase causes a large one-off Greenhouse Gas emissions (473,000 tons), but the vehicles using the road will generate the most emissions (~7 m tons/yr). The calculations for the construction and operation (14,000 tons/yr) seem reasonable. However, the EIS predicts that by 2031, Greenhouse Gas (GhG) emissions from road use will decrease by 229,000 t/yr compared to a scenario based on doing minimal road works (2.9% decrease) and this prediction is flawed. The calculation takes several factors into account: the general projected growth of road traffic across Sydney; the likely preferences of road users to change their current routes to use the new toll; the reduction in congestion from adding new capacity and induced travel (the tendency for more journeys to be undertaken just because of the increased ease of travel).

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Traffic and Transport – Comment on New M5 Construction impacts

This post  by Anthony McCosker provides an assessment of the New M5 Environmental Impact Statement Traffic and Transport section which I have summarised here.  It deals with the impact of construction as assessed in the 150 page Chapter 9 of the EIS and associated 298 page Appendix G. In a further post I will  provide an assessment of the information in the EIS relating to the operation of the project.

The scope of the modelling does not allow for the full, system-wide effects of the construction traffic to be analysed sufficiently. Increasing the scope of the assessment would go some way to identifying the true impact of the construction on traffic, and would also better allow the cumulative impacts of the project on traffic and transport to be gauged.

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Traffic and Transport Construction Impacts of New M5 – Summary of AECOM’s EIS

Ploughing through the whole EIS can be time consuming and tedious as there is so much repetition in the Westconnex EIS documents.

Researcher Anthony McCosker has provided us with a summary of the construction impacts as set out in New M5 EIS Appendix G on Traffic and Transport which consists of 298 pages.

This post should  be read in conjunction with Anthony McClosker’s comment on this section.

Later, we will provide a summary of the information in the EIS relating to the operation of the WestConnex project (note that some information deemed relevant to both summaries will cross over and be repeated or revisited).

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Table of Contents

The EIS is divided into Volume 1 and Volume 2.

Volume 1 contains a summary of the whole project. For most of the chapters in Volume 1, there is an Appendix in Volume 2 which contains the details.

There are also other documents that aren’t part of the EIS, but are still important. One of more important such documents is the SEAR – the Secretaries Environmental Assessment Requirements. This document sets out what the EIS must cover.

Many chapters and appendicies are avaiable in large pdfs, which contain hi-res images, and small pdfs, which contain the same text, but only low-res images.

Amended WestConnex New M5 SSI Application Report
Critical State Significant Infrastructure declaration information
WestConnex New M5 – Revised SEARs
Vol 1A 00 Executive summary ToC certification and glossary
Vol 1A Chapter 01 Introduction
Vol 1A Chapter 02 Assessment process
Vol 1A Chapter 03 Strategic context and project need
Vol 1A Chapter 04 Project development and alternatives
Vol 1A Chapter 05 Project description
Vol 1A Chapter 06 Construction work Vol 2A App A to App C SEARS, Environmental Planning and Assessment Regulation 2000, Part 3 of Schedule 2 checklist, Geological Long Section
Vol 2A App D Properties affected by acquisition
Vol 2A App F Landfill Closure Management Plan
Vol 1A Chapter 07 Consultation Vol 2A App E Draft Community Consultation Framework
Vol 1B Chapter 08 Overview of environmental issues
Vol 1B Chapter 09 Traffic and transport Vol 2B App G Traffic and Transport
Vol 1B Chapter 10 Air quality Vol 2C App H Air Quality
Vol 1B Chapter 11 Human health Vol 2C App I Human Health Risk Assessment
Vol 1B Chapter 12 Noise and vibration Vol 2D App J Noise and Vibration
Vol 1B Chapter 13 Land use and property
Vol 1B Chapter 14 Visual impacts and urban design Vol 2E App K Landscape and Visual Impact Assessment
Vol 2E App L Urban Design
Vol 1B Chapter 15 Social and economic Vol 2E App M Social and Economic
Vol 1C Chapter 16 Soil and water quality Vol 2E App N Surface Water
Vol 1C Chapter 17 Contamination Vol 2F App O Contamination
Vol 1C Chapter 18 Flooding and drainage Vol 2G App P Flooding
Vol 1C Chapter 19 Groundwater Vol 2G App Q Groundwater
Vol 1C Chapter 20 Non-Aboriginal heritage Vol 2G App R Non-Aboriginal Heritage
Vol 1C Chapter 21 Biodiversity Vol 2H App S Biodiversity Assessment
Vol 2H App T Biodiversity Offset Strategy
Vol 1C Chapter 22 Greenhouse gas Vol 2H App U Greenhouse gas
Vol 1C Chapter 23 Aboriginal heritage Vol 2H App V Aboriginal Heritage
Vol 1C Chapter 24 Resource use and waste minimisation
Vol 1C Chapter 25 Climate change risk and adaptation Vol 2H App W Climate Change
Vol 1C Chapter 26 Hazard and risk
Vol 1C Chapter 27 Cumulative impacts
Vol 1C Chapter 28 Sustainability
Vol 1C Chapter 29 Environmental risk analysis
Vol 1C Chapter 30 Summary of environmental management measures
Vol 1C Chapter 31 Project justification and conclusion
Vol 1C Chapter 32 References
Vol 1C Chapter 33 and 34 List of tables and figure

Although not part of the EIS, the ‘Updated Strategic Business Case’ and its appendixes contain information about traffic and other impacts, not all of which is in the EIS.

Tech paper 1 – Traffic
Tech paper 2 – Economic appraisal – costs and benefits
Tech paper 3 – Environmental Review
Tech paper 4 – Consultation history
Updated Strategic Business Case

Also of interest is an independent report that The City of Sydney have commissioned, which is well worth a read:

Amended-WestConnex-New-M5-SSI-Application-Report

Amended WestConnex New M5 SSI Application Report

hi-res pdf: Amended WestConnex New M5 SSI Application Report.pdf

Section Pages
1 Introduction 1-1
1.1 Project overview 1-1
1.2 Project location 1-2
1.3 Project features 1-2
1.4 Project benefits 1-9
1.5 Purpose of this environmental impact statement 1-9
1.6 Structure of this environmental impact statement 1-9
2 Assessment process 2-1
2.1 Approval framework 2-1
2.2 Environmental planning instruments 2-5
2.3 Other NSW legislation 2-6
2.4 Commonwealth legislation 2-7
3 Strategic context and project need 3-1
3.1 Strategic planning and policy framework 3-1
3.2 National strategic planning and policy framework 3-10
3.3 Why the project is needed 3-13
3.4 Business Case and economic appraisal 3-19
3.5 Project objectives 3-20
3.6 Summary 3-21
4 Project development and alternatives 4-1
4.1 History of the M5 East Motorway and WestConnex 4-5
4.2 Strategic alternatives 4-8
4.3 Motorway options 4-20
4.4 Eastern interchange options 4-31
4.5 Preferred motorway alignment 4-36
4.6 Design development of operational ancillary facilities 4-36
5 Project description 5-1
5.1 The project 5-2
5.2 The completed project 5-4
5.3 Project construction and operational footprint 5-4
5.4 Western surface works 5-23
5.5 Tunnels 5-45
5.6 St Peters interchange 5-65
5.7 Local road upgrades 5-81
5.8 Motorway operational ancillary infrastructure 5-113
5.9 Landfill closure infrastructure 5-146
5.10 Property access and acquisition 5-153
5.11 Urban design and landscaping 5-154
6 Construction work 6-1
6.1 Construction strategy 6-1
6.2 Construction program 6-2
6.3 Construction footprint 6-3
6.4 Construction methodology 6-13
6.5 Construction activities 6-15
6.6 Traffic management and access 6-70
6.7 Construction workforce and works hours 6-78
6.8 Plant and equipment 6-84
6.9 Construction noise attenuation 6-89
6.10 Construction waste management 6-90
6.11 Construction resource use 6-93
7 Consultation 7-1
7.1 Community and stakeholder engagement overview 7-2
7.2 Consultation objectives 7-4
7.3 Consultation process and activities 7-4
7.4 Summary of issues raised 7-22
7.5 Design considerations in response to early feedback 7-62
7.6 Future consultation 7-65
8 Overview of environmental issues 8-1
9 Traffic and transport 9-1
9.1 Assessment methodology 9-3
9.2 Existing environment 9-19
9.3 Assessment of potential impacts 9-52
9.4 Environmental management measures 9-148
10 Air quality 10-1
10.1 Assessment approach 10-3
10.2 Construction air quality assessment methodology 10-15
10.3 Alexandria Landfill air quality assessment methodology 10-19
10.4 Operational air quality assessment methodology 10-21
10.5 Existing environment 10-41
10.6 Assessment of air quality impacts during construction 10-64
10.7 Assessment of air quality impacts during Alexandria Landfill closure 10-64
10.8 Assessment of air quality impacts during operation 10-69
10.9 Assessment of cumulative impacts 10-179
10.10 Environmental management measures 10-189
11 Human health 11-1
11.1 Assessment methodology 11-1
11.2 Existing environment 11-5
11.3 Assessment of potential impacts 11-10
11.4 Environmental management measures 11-39
12 Noise and vibration 12-1
12.1 Assessment methodology 12-2
12.2 Existing environment 12-27
12.3 Assessment criteria 12-29
12.4 Assessment of potential impacts 12-46
12.5 Environmental management measures 12-96
13 Land use and property 13-1
13.1 Assessment methodology 13-2
13.2 Existing environment 13-2
13.3 Assessment of potential impacts 13-37
13.4 Environmental management measures 13-72
14 Visual impacts and urban design 14-1
14.1 Assessment methodology 14-2
14.2 Existing environment 14-9
14.3 Assessment of potential impacts 14-31
14.4 Environmental management measures 14-82
15 Social and economic 15-1
15.1 Assessment methodology 15-2
15.2 Existing environment 15-7
16 Soil and water quality 16-1
16.1 Assessment methodology 16-2
16.2 Existing environment 16-13
16.3 Assessment of potential impacts 16-33
16.4 Environmental management measures 16-55
17 Contamination 17-1
17.1 Assessment methodology 17-2
17.2 Existing environment 17-7
17.3 Assessment of potential impacts 17-25
17.4 Environmental management measures 17-35
18 Flooding and drainage 18-1
18.1 Assessment methodology 18-1
18.2 Existing environment 18-3
18.3 Assessment of potential impacts 18-15
18.4 Environmental management measures 18-33
19 Groundwater 19-1
19.1 Assessment methodology 19-1
19.2 Existing environment 19-12
19.3 Assessment of potential impacts 19-31
19.4 Environmental management measures 19-67
20 Non-Aboriginal heritage 20-1
20.1 Assessment methodology 20-2
20.2 Existing environment 20-6
20.3 Assessment of potential impacts 20-31
20.4 Environmental management measures 20-50
21 Biodiversity 21-1
21.1 Assessment methodology 21-3
21.2 Existing environment 21-15
21.3 Assessment of potential impacts 21-45
21.4 Environmental management measures 21-59
22 Greenhouse gas 22-1
22.1 Assessment methodology 22-1
22.2 Existing environment 22-3
22.3 Assessment of potential impacts 22-4
22.4 Environmental management measures 22-19
23 Aboriginal heritage 23-1
23.1 Assessment methodology 23-2
23.2 Existing environment 23-7
23.3 Assessment of potential impacts 23-11
23.4 Environmental management measures 23-14
24 Resource use and waste minimisation 24-1
24.1 Assessment of potential impacts 24-1
24.2 Environmental management measures 24-19
25 Climate change risk and adaptation 25-1
25.1 Assessment methodology 25-1
25.2 Existing environment 25-3
25.3 Assessment of potential impacts 25-7
25.4 Environmental management measures 25-8
26 Hazard and risk 26-1
26.1 Assessment of potential impacts 26-1
26.2 Environmental management measures 26-29
27 Cumulative impacts 27-1
27.1 Nature of cumulative impacts 27-1
27.2 Assessment methodology 27-2
27.3 Existing and proposed projects 27-2
27.4 Cumulative impacts of WestConnex component projects 27-8
27.5 Cumulative impacts of nearby projects 27-13
27.6 Management of impacts 27-15
28 Sustainability 28-1
28.1 What is sustainability? 28-1
28.2 Sustainability policy framework 28-1
28.3 Sustainability management on the project 28-14
28.4 Ecologically sustainable development 28-15
29 Environmental risk analysis 29-1
29.1 Environmental risk analysis process 29-1
29.2 Preliminary environmental assessment 29-2
29.3 Assessment of the key issues identified in the SEARs 29-2
29.4 Risk analysis summary 29-3
30 Summary of environmental management measures 30-1
31 Project justification and conclusion 31-1
31.1 Project justification 31-1
31.2 Conclusion 31-9
32 References 32-1
33 List of tables 33-1
34 List of figures 34-1

Next chapter: Critical State Significant Infrastructure declaration information

Critical-State-Significant-Infrastructure-declaration-information

Previous chapter: Amended WestConnex New M5 SSI Application Report

Critical State Significant Infrastructure declaration information

hi-res pdf: New M5 EIS Critical State Significant Infrastructure declaration information.pdf

Section Pages
1 Introduction 1-1
1.1 Project overview 1-1
1.2 Project location 1-2
1.3 Project features 1-2
1.4 Project benefits 1-9
1.5 Purpose of this environmental impact statement 1-9
1.6 Structure of this environmental impact statement 1-9
2 Assessment process 2-1
2.1 Approval framework 2-1
2.2 Environmental planning instruments 2-5
2.3 Other NSW legislation 2-6
2.4 Commonwealth legislation 2-7
3 Strategic context and project need 3-1
3.1 Strategic planning and policy framework 3-1
3.2 National strategic planning and policy framework 3-10
3.3 Why the project is needed 3-13
3.4 Business Case and economic appraisal 3-19
3.5 Project objectives 3-20
3.6 Summary 3-21
4 Project development and alternatives 4-1
4.1 History of the M5 East Motorway and WestConnex 4-5
4.2 Strategic alternatives 4-8
4.3 Motorway options 4-20
4.4 Eastern interchange options 4-31
4.5 Preferred motorway alignment 4-36
4.6 Design development of operational ancillary facilities 4-36
5 Project description 5-1
5.1 The project 5-2
5.2 The completed project 5-4
5.3 Project construction and operational footprint 5-4
5.4 Western surface works 5-23
5.5 Tunnels 5-45
5.6 St Peters interchange 5-65
5.7 Local road upgrades 5-81
5.8 Motorway operational ancillary infrastructure 5-113
5.9 Landfill closure infrastructure 5-146
5.10 Property access and acquisition 5-153
5.11 Urban design and landscaping 5-154
6 Construction work 6-1
6.1 Construction strategy 6-1
6.2 Construction program 6-2
6.3 Construction footprint 6-3
6.4 Construction methodology 6-13
6.5 Construction activities 6-15
6.6 Traffic management and access 6-70
6.7 Construction workforce and works hours 6-78
6.8 Plant and equipment 6-84
6.9 Construction noise attenuation 6-89
6.10 Construction waste management 6-90
6.11 Construction resource use 6-93
7 Consultation 7-1
7.1 Community and stakeholder engagement overview 7-2
7.2 Consultation objectives 7-4
7.3 Consultation process and activities 7-4
7.4 Summary of issues raised 7-22
7.5 Design considerations in response to early feedback 7-62
7.6 Future consultation 7-65
8 Overview of environmental issues 8-1
9 Traffic and transport 9-1
9.1 Assessment methodology 9-3
9.2 Existing environment 9-19
9.3 Assessment of potential impacts 9-52
9.4 Environmental management measures 9-148
10 Air quality 10-1
10.1 Assessment approach 10-3
10.2 Construction air quality assessment methodology 10-15
10.3 Alexandria Landfill air quality assessment methodology 10-19
10.4 Operational air quality assessment methodology 10-21
10.5 Existing environment 10-41
10.6 Assessment of air quality impacts during construction 10-64
10.7 Assessment of air quality impacts during Alexandria Landfill closure 10-64
10.8 Assessment of air quality impacts during operation 10-69
10.9 Assessment of cumulative impacts 10-179
10.10 Environmental management measures 10-189
11 Human health 11-1
11.1 Assessment methodology 11-1
11.2 Existing environment 11-5
11.3 Assessment of potential impacts 11-10
11.4 Environmental management measures 11-39
12 Noise and vibration 12-1
12.1 Assessment methodology 12-2
12.2 Existing environment 12-27
12.3 Assessment criteria 12-29
12.4 Assessment of potential impacts 12-46
12.5 Environmental management measures 12-96
13 Land use and property 13-1
13.1 Assessment methodology 13-2
13.2 Existing environment 13-2
13.3 Assessment of potential impacts 13-37
13.4 Environmental management measures 13-72
14 Visual impacts and urban design 14-1
14.1 Assessment methodology 14-2
14.2 Existing environment 14-9
14.3 Assessment of potential impacts 14-31
14.4 Environmental management measures 14-82
15 Social and economic 15-1
15.1 Assessment methodology 15-2
15.2 Existing environment 15-7
16 Soil and water quality 16-1
16.1 Assessment methodology 16-2
16.2 Existing environment 16-13
16.3 Assessment of potential impacts 16-33
16.4 Environmental management measures 16-55
17 Contamination 17-1
17.1 Assessment methodology 17-2
17.2 Existing environment 17-7
17.3 Assessment of potential impacts 17-25
17.4 Environmental management measures 17-35
18 Flooding and drainage 18-1
18.1 Assessment methodology 18-1
18.2 Existing environment 18-3
18.3 Assessment of potential impacts 18-15
18.4 Environmental management measures 18-33
19 Groundwater 19-1
19.1 Assessment methodology 19-1
19.2 Existing environment 19-12
19.3 Assessment of potential impacts 19-31
19.4 Environmental management measures 19-67
20 Non-Aboriginal heritage 20-1
20.1 Assessment methodology 20-2
20.2 Existing environment 20-6
20.3 Assessment of potential impacts 20-31
20.4 Environmental management measures 20-50
21 Biodiversity 21-1
21.1 Assessment methodology 21-3
21.2 Existing environment 21-15
21.3 Assessment of potential impacts 21-45
21.4 Environmental management measures 21-59
22 Greenhouse gas 22-1
22.1 Assessment methodology 22-1
22.2 Existing environment 22-3
22.3 Assessment of potential impacts 22-4
22.4 Environmental management measures 22-19
23 Aboriginal heritage 23-1
23.1 Assessment methodology 23-2
23.2 Existing environment 23-7
23.3 Assessment of potential impacts 23-11
23.4 Environmental management measures 23-14
24 Resource use and waste minimisation 24-1
24.1 Assessment of potential impacts 24-1
24.2 Environmental management measures 24-19
25 Climate change risk and adaptation 25-1
25.1 Assessment methodology 25-1
25.2 Existing environment 25-3
25.3 Assessment of potential impacts 25-7
25.4 Environmental management measures 25-8
26 Hazard and risk 26-1
26.1 Assessment of potential impacts 26-1
26.2 Environmental management measures 26-29
27 Cumulative impacts 27-1
27.1 Nature of cumulative impacts 27-1
27.2 Assessment methodology 27-2
27.3 Existing and proposed projects 27-2
27.4 Cumulative impacts of WestConnex component projects 27-8
27.5 Cumulative impacts of nearby projects 27-13
27.6 Management of impacts 27-15
28 Sustainability 28-1
28.1 What is sustainability? 28-1
28.2 Sustainability policy framework 28-1
28.3 Sustainability management on the project 28-14
28.4 Ecologically sustainable development 28-15
29 Environmental risk analysis 29-1
29.1 Environmental risk analysis process 29-1
29.2 Preliminary environmental assessment 29-2
29.3 Assessment of the key issues identified in the SEARs 29-2
29.4 Risk analysis summary 29-3
30 Summary of environmental management measures 30-1
31 Project justification and conclusion 31-1
31.1 Project justification 31-1
31.2 Conclusion 31-9
32 References 32-1
33 List of tables 33-1
34 List of figures 34-1

Next chapter: WestConnex New M5 – Revised SEARs

WestConnex-New-M5—Revised-SEARs

Previous chapter: Critical State Significant Infrastructure declaration information

WestConnex New M5 – Revised SEARs

hi-res pdf: WestConnex New M5-Revised SEARs.pdf

Section Pages
1 Introduction 1-1
1.1 Project overview 1-1
1.2 Project location 1-2
1.3 Project features 1-2
1.4 Project benefits 1-9
1.5 Purpose of this environmental impact statement 1-9
1.6 Structure of this environmental impact statement 1-9
2 Assessment process 2-1
2.1 Approval framework 2-1
2.2 Environmental planning instruments 2-5
2.3 Other NSW legislation 2-6
2.4 Commonwealth legislation 2-7
3 Strategic context and project need 3-1
3.1 Strategic planning and policy framework 3-1
3.2 National strategic planning and policy framework 3-10
3.3 Why the project is needed 3-13
3.4 Business Case and economic appraisal 3-19
3.5 Project objectives 3-20
3.6 Summary 3-21
4 Project development and alternatives 4-1
4.1 History of the M5 East Motorway and WestConnex 4-5
4.2 Strategic alternatives 4-8
4.3 Motorway options 4-20
4.4 Eastern interchange options 4-31
4.5 Preferred motorway alignment 4-36
4.6 Design development of operational ancillary facilities 4-36
5 Project description 5-1
5.1 The project 5-2
5.2 The completed project 5-4
5.3 Project construction and operational footprint 5-4
5.4 Western surface works 5-23
5.5 Tunnels 5-45
5.6 St Peters interchange 5-65
5.7 Local road upgrades 5-81
5.8 Motorway operational ancillary infrastructure 5-113
5.9 Landfill closure infrastructure 5-146
5.10 Property access and acquisition 5-153
5.11 Urban design and landscaping 5-154
6 Construction work 6-1
6.1 Construction strategy 6-1
6.2 Construction program 6-2
6.3 Construction footprint 6-3
6.4 Construction methodology 6-13
6.5 Construction activities 6-15
6.6 Traffic management and access 6-70
6.7 Construction workforce and works hours 6-78
6.8 Plant and equipment 6-84
6.9 Construction noise attenuation 6-89
6.10 Construction waste management 6-90
6.11 Construction resource use 6-93
7 Consultation 7-1
7.1 Community and stakeholder engagement overview 7-2
7.2 Consultation objectives 7-4
7.3 Consultation process and activities 7-4
7.4 Summary of issues raised 7-22
7.5 Design considerations in response to early feedback 7-62
7.6 Future consultation 7-65
8 Overview of environmental issues 8-1
9 Traffic and transport 9-1
9.1 Assessment methodology 9-3
9.2 Existing environment 9-19
9.3 Assessment of potential impacts 9-52
9.4 Environmental management measures 9-148
10 Air quality 10-1
10.1 Assessment approach 10-3
10.2 Construction air quality assessment methodology 10-15
10.3 Alexandria Landfill air quality assessment methodology 10-19
10.4 Operational air quality assessment methodology 10-21
10.5 Existing environment 10-41
10.6 Assessment of air quality impacts during construction 10-64
10.7 Assessment of air quality impacts during Alexandria Landfill closure 10-64
10.8 Assessment of air quality impacts during operation 10-69
10.9 Assessment of cumulative impacts 10-179
10.10 Environmental management measures 10-189
11 Human health 11-1
11.1 Assessment methodology 11-1
11.2 Existing environment 11-5
11.3 Assessment of potential impacts 11-10
11.4 Environmental management measures 11-39
12 Noise and vibration 12-1
12.1 Assessment methodology 12-2
12.2 Existing environment 12-27
12.3 Assessment criteria 12-29
12.4 Assessment of potential impacts 12-46
12.5 Environmental management measures 12-96
13 Land use and property 13-1
13.1 Assessment methodology 13-2
13.2 Existing environment 13-2
13.3 Assessment of potential impacts 13-37
13.4 Environmental management measures 13-72
14 Visual impacts and urban design 14-1
14.1 Assessment methodology 14-2
14.2 Existing environment 14-9
14.3 Assessment of potential impacts 14-31
14.4 Environmental management measures 14-82
15 Social and economic 15-1
15.1 Assessment methodology 15-2
15.2 Existing environment 15-7
16 Soil and water quality 16-1
16.1 Assessment methodology 16-2
16.2 Existing environment 16-13
16.3 Assessment of potential impacts 16-33
16.4 Environmental management measures 16-55
17 Contamination 17-1
17.1 Assessment methodology 17-2
17.2 Existing environment 17-7
17.3 Assessment of potential impacts 17-25
17.4 Environmental management measures 17-35
18 Flooding and drainage 18-1
18.1 Assessment methodology 18-1
18.2 Existing environment 18-3
18.3 Assessment of potential impacts 18-15
18.4 Environmental management measures 18-33
19 Groundwater 19-1
19.1 Assessment methodology 19-1
19.2 Existing environment 19-12
19.3 Assessment of potential impacts 19-31
19.4 Environmental management measures 19-67
20 Non-Aboriginal heritage 20-1
20.1 Assessment methodology 20-2
20.2 Existing environment 20-6
20.3 Assessment of potential impacts 20-31
20.4 Environmental management measures 20-50
21 Biodiversity 21-1
21.1 Assessment methodology 21-3
21.2 Existing environment 21-15
21.3 Assessment of potential impacts 21-45
21.4 Environmental management measures 21-59
22 Greenhouse gas 22-1
22.1 Assessment methodology 22-1
22.2 Existing environment 22-3
22.3 Assessment of potential impacts 22-4
22.4 Environmental management measures 22-19
23 Aboriginal heritage 23-1
23.1 Assessment methodology 23-2
23.2 Existing environment 23-7
23.3 Assessment of potential impacts 23-11
23.4 Environmental management measures 23-14
24 Resource use and waste minimisation 24-1
24.1 Assessment of potential impacts 24-1
24.2 Environmental management measures 24-19
25 Climate change risk and adaptation 25-1
25.1 Assessment methodology 25-1
25.2 Existing environment 25-3
25.3 Assessment of potential impacts 25-7
25.4 Environmental management measures 25-8
26 Hazard and risk 26-1
26.1 Assessment of potential impacts 26-1
26.2 Environmental management measures 26-29
27 Cumulative impacts 27-1
27.1 Nature of cumulative impacts 27-1
27.2 Assessment methodology 27-2
27.3 Existing and proposed projects 27-2
27.4 Cumulative impacts of WestConnex component projects 27-8
27.5 Cumulative impacts of nearby projects 27-13
27.6 Management of impacts 27-15
28 Sustainability 28-1
28.1 What is sustainability? 28-1
28.2 Sustainability policy framework 28-1
28.3 Sustainability management on the project 28-14
28.4 Ecologically sustainable development 28-15
29 Environmental risk analysis 29-1
29.1 Environmental risk analysis process 29-1
29.2 Preliminary environmental assessment 29-2
29.3 Assessment of the key issues identified in the SEARs 29-2
29.4 Risk analysis summary 29-3
30 Summary of environmental management measures 30-1
31 Project justification and conclusion 31-1
31.1 Project justification 31-1
31.2 Conclusion 31-9
32 References 32-1
33 List of tables 33-1
34 List of figures 34-1

Next chapter: Vol 1A 00 Executive summary ToC certification and glossary