Vol-2C App-H Air-Quality

Chapter: Vol 1B Chapter 10 Air quality

Appendix Vol 2C App H Air Quality

Hi-res pdf: New M5 EIS Vol 2C App H Air Quality.pdf

Low-res pdfs:

Section Pages
1.6 Introduction 1  
1.6 Overview of WestConnex 1  
1.6 Overview of the project 2  
1.6 Project location 4  
1.6 Secretary’s environmental assessment requirements 6  
1.6 Purpose and scope of the report 9  
1.6 Structure of the report 10  
2.4 The project 11  
2.4 Overview of Chapter 11  
2.4 Project features 11  
2.4 Construction activities 12  
2.4 Specific aspects of design relating to in-tunnel and ambient air quality 15  
3.6 Key air quality issues for the New M5 project 23  
3.6 Overview of Chapter 23  
3.6 Roads, tunnels and air quality 23  
3.6 Sydney tunnels and air quality 25  
3.6 Advisory Committee on Tunnel Air Quality 26  
3.6 WestConnex Strategic Environmental Review 26  
3.6 Summary of key air quality issues 27  
4.6 Regulation of emissions, air pollution and exposure 29  
4.6 Overview of Chapter 29  
4.6 Policies and regulations for road vehicle emissions 29  
4.6 Fuel quality regulations 31  
4.6 In-tunnel pollution limits 31  
4.6 Tunnel portal emission restrictions 34  
4.6 Ambient air quality standards and criteria 34  
5.6 Overview of assessment methodology 39  
5.6 Overview 39  
5.6 Key documents, guidelines and policies 39  
5.6 Consultation with government agencies and ACTAQ 40  
5.6 Previous road and tunnel project assessments 40  
5.6 General approach 41  
5.6 Treatment of uncertainty 51  
6.7 Existing environment 53  
6.7 Overview 53  
6.7 Terrain and land use 53  
6.7 Climate 54  
6.7 Meteorology 55  
6.7 Emissions 58  
6.7 In-tunnel air quality 63  
6.7 Ambient air quality 63  
7 Assessment of general construction impacts 65  
7.8 Overview 65  
7.8 Construction footprint 65  
7.8 Construction activities for the project 66  
7.8 Assessment procedure 67  
7.8 Step 1: Screening 69  
7.8 Step 2: Risk assessment 69  
7.8 Step 3: Mitigation 75  
7.8 Step 4: Significance of risks 75  
8.3 Alexandria Landfill closure and remediation: dust and odour assessment 77  
8.3 Overview 77  
8.3 Dust assessment 77  
8.3 Odour assessment 91  
9.9 Assessment of operational impacts 95  
9.9 Overview 95  
9.9 Emission calculations 95  
9.9 In-tunnel air quality 113  
9.9 Dispersion modelling 115  
9.9 Results for expected traffic scenarios (ground level concentrations) 145  
9.9 Results for expected traffic scenarios (elevated receptors) 207  
9.9 Results for regulatory worst case scenarios 211  
9.9 Summary of key assumptions 212  
9.9 Sensitivity tests 218  
10.3 Assessment of cumulative impacts 221  
10.3 Overview 221  
10.3 In-tunnel air quality 221  
10.3 Ambient air quality 221  
11.2 Management of impacts 225  
11.2 Construction impacts 225  
11.2 Operational impacts 228  
12.3 Summary and conclusions 239  
12.3 Construction impacts 239  
12.3 Operational impacts 239  
12.3 Management of impacts 243  
13 References 245  
13 Location of WestConnex 3  
13 Overview of the project 5  
13 14  
13 Kingsgrove ventilation facility – location 17  
13 Arncliffe ventilation facility – location 18  
13 St Peters ventilation facility – location 19  
13 30  
13 30  
13 Modelling domains for GRAMM and GRAL 43  
13 Contributions to total pollutant concentrations (example) 50  
13 Terrain in the WestConnex study area 53  
13 Meteorological stations in the GRAMM model domain 56  
13 Hourly average wind speed at Canterbury Racecourse 2014 57  
13 Hourly average temperatures at Canterbury Racecourse 2014 57  
13 Average wind speed by hour of day, Canterbury Racecourse 2014 57  
13 Average temperature by hour of day, Canterbury Racecourse 2014 57  
13 59  
13 Future projections of sectoral emissions – Sydney, 2011-2036 60  
13 percentage of total) 61  
13 Future projections of road transport emissions – Sydney, 2011-2036 62  
13 Steps in an assessment of construction dust (IAQM, 2014) 68  
13 70  
13 Annual and seasonal wind roses for Sydney Airport (2014) 79  
13 Annual statistics of 1/L by hour of day 80  
13 Annual distribution of stability type by hour of day 80  
13 Dust source locations as represented in AERMOD 84  
13 85  
13 86  
13 87  
13 88  
13 89  
13 90  
13 excavation and leachate management (OU) 94  
13 Estimated traffic volume, composition and speed in the New M5 tunnel 96  
13 Emission rates for project ventilation outlets (CO, NOx and PM10) 98  
13 Emission rates for project ventilation outlets (PM2.5, THC) 99  
13 104  
13 Example traffic model output (link 10285-10313, motorway, 2014) 108  
13 109  
13 NOX emission rates in 2013 112  
13 concentration limits) 114  
13 Overview of the GRAMM/GRAL modelling system 116  
13 Example of a wind field across the New M5 domain 120  
13 Annual and seasonal wind roses for Canterbury Racecourse AWS (2014) 121  
13 122  
13 Modelled discrete receptor locations 127  
13 Building heights at RWR receptor locations 130  
13 Frequency distribution of building heights at RWR receptor locations 131  
13 Example of ventilation air flow profile used in GRAL 133  
13 136  
13 CO (dotted lines show 95% prediction intervals) 139  
13 140  
13 141  
13 142  
13 144  
13 146  
2021 Source contributions to maximum 1-hour mean CO at community receptors (2021 146  
2021 Change in maximum 1-hour mean CO at community receptors (2021-DS and 2031 147  
2021 147  
2021 Change in maximum 1-hour CO at RWR receptors (2021-DS) 148  
2021 149  
2021 149  
2021 150  
2021 Annual mean NO2 at community receptors (2021-DS and 2031-DS) 150  
2021 151  
2021 152  
2021 Source contributions to annual mean NO2 at RWR receptors (2021-DS) 152  
2021 Changes in annual mean NO2 at RWR receptors (2021-DS) 153  
2021 Contour plot showing annual mean NO2 without the project (2021-DM) 155  
2021 Contour plot showing annual mean NO2 with the project (2021-DS) 156  
2021 157  
2021 158  
2021 159  
2021 Contour plot showing annual mean NOX for ventilation outlets only (SPI outlet, 2021 160  
2021 Maximum 1-hour NO2 at community receptors (2021-DS and 2031-DS) 161  
2021 162  
2021 162  
2021 163  
2021 Changes in maximum 1-hour NO2 at RWR receptors (2021-DS) 163  
2021 Contour plot showing maximum 1-hour NO2 (2021-DM) 165  
2021 Contour plot showing maximum 1-hour NO2 (2021-DS) 166  
2021 167  
2021 168  
2021 Annual mean PM10 at community receptors (2021-DS and 2031-DS) 169  
2021 170  
2021 170  
2021 Source contributions to annual mean PM10 at RWR receptors (2021-DS) 171  
2021 Changes in annual mean PM10 at RWR receptors (2021-DS) 171  
2021 Contour plot showing annual mean PM10 (2021-DM) 172  
2021 Contour plot showing annual mean PM10 (2021-DS) 173  
2021 174  
2021 outlet, 2021-DS) 175  
2021 176  
2021 177  
2021 Maximum 24-hour PM10 at community receptors (2021-DS and 2031-DS) 178  
2021 178  
2021 179  
2021 179  
2021 Changes in maximum 24-hour PM10 at RWR receptors (2021-DS) 180  
2021 Contour plot showing maximum 24-hour average PM10 (2021-DM) 181  
2021 Contour plot showing maximum 24-hour average PM10 (2021-DS) 182  
2021 183  
2021 outlet, 2021-DS) 184  
2021 outlet, 2021-DS) 185  
2021 186  
2021 Annual mean PM2.5 at community receptors (2021-DS and 2031-DS) 187  
2021 187  
2021 188  
2021 Source contributions to annual mean PM2.5 at RWR receptors (2021-DS) 189  
2021 Changes in annual mean PM2.5 at RWR receptors (2021-DS) 189  
2021 Contour plot showing annual mean PM2.5 (2021-DM) 190  
2021 Contour plot showing annual mean PM2.5 (2021-DS) 191  
2021 192  
2021 outlet, 2021-DS) 193  
2021 194  
2021 195  
2021 196  
2021 197  
2031 197  
2031 198  
2031 Changes in maximum 24-hour PM2.5 at RWR receptors (2021-DS) 198  
2031 Contour plot showing maximum 24-hour average PM2.5 (2021-DM) 199  
2031 Contour plot showing maximum 24-hour average PM2.5 (2021-DS) 200  
2031 201  
2031 (Kingsgrove outlet, 2021-DS) 202  
2031 (Arncliffe outlet, 2021-DS) 203  
2031 outlet, 2021-DS) 204  
2031 205  
2031 205  
2031 and 2031-DS) 206  
2031 and 2031-DS) 206  
2031 208  
2031 209  
2031 annual mean PM2.5 of more than 1.6 µg/m3 (shown as as yellow points) 210  
2031 Annual mean NO2 at community receptors (2031-DS and 2031-DSC) 221  
2031 222  
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